Recently my colleagues and myself have run across situations where Microsoft Windows Server updates have been causing issues within the SharePoint environment. We have started a list of those that we have recently run across however we know that this is not a comprehensive listing, so please feel free to add comments on more that you may have found.
Typically with any of these issues the fix is as simple as uninstall and a reboot of the server. Also make sure whatever updating software you are using that you suspend these updates from being installed in the future.
KB 2844286 – Server 2008 R2 SP1 (More Details)
KB 2844285 – Server 2003 SP2 (MS has released an update More Details)
KB 2844287 – Server 2008 SP2 (More Details)
KB 2840633 – Server 2012 (More Details)
I will update this list when we find more or if Microsoft actually fixes these fixes!